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Subject: [redesastres-l] RV: PRO/PL> Huanglongbing, citrus - Colombia: (LG)
Date: Wed, 10 Feb 2016 08:31:35 -0800
From: Maria Irian Percedo < Esta dirección de correo electrónico está protegida contra spambots. Usted necesita tener Javascript activado para poder verla. >;
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Importante plaga de los cítricos ahora en Colombia.
Saludos, Maria Irian
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Asunto: PRO/PL> Huanglongbing, citrus - Colombia: (LG)
HUANGLONGBING, CITRUS - COLOMBIA: (LA GUAJIRA)
**********************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases <http://www.isid.org>
Date: Mon 25 Jan 2016
Source: FreshPlaza, RCN Radio report [edited]
<http://www.freshplaza.com/article/152357/Colombia-Agriculture-severely-thre
atened-by-HLB>
Agriculture severely threatened by HLB
--------------------------------------
Huanglongbing [HLB] was identified in 2 municipalities of La Guajira
[department]. If it spreads, it could cause the loss of some 83 000 hectares
[about 205 000 acres] of citrus fruits.
The disease could cause the end of Colombia's citrus industry at any time,
according to the national federation of growers, who also said that they
have been waiting 2 years for the Government to provide the necessary
devices to monitor and prevent the spread of the vector that transmits the
disease.
--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
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[Huanglongbing (HLB, also called citrus greening), is one of the most
damaging diseases of citrus crops affecting leaves and fruits. It is caused
by fastidious phloem-inhabiting bacteria classified as _Candidatus_
Liberibacter asiaticus, africanus (including a subsp.
capensis) or americanus.
The disease affects both leaves and fruits. Symptoms include blotchy
mottling and yellowing of leaves and small, irregularly shaped fruits with a
thick, pale peel, and bad taste. Early symptoms may be confused with
nutrient deficiencies. Affected trees become stunted, bear multiple
off-season flowers, and may live for only a few years without ever bearing
usable fruit.
HLB is restricted to _Citrus_ and close relatives because of the narrow host
range of its psyllid vectors. _Ca._ L. asiaticus and americanus are spread
by the Asian citrus psyllid (_Diaphorina citri_). The main vector for _Ca._
L. africanus is the African citrus psyllid _Trioza erytreae_. The pathogens
can also be spread by grafting and possibly by seed from infected plants or
transovarially in the vectors. Both pathogens and vectors can be spread with
plant material.
Disease management requires an integrated approach including use of clean
planting and grafting stock, elimination of inoculum, use of pesticides for
vector control in orchards, and biological control of vectors in non-crop
reservoirs. Control using cultural methods, such as interplanting of guava,
is being trialled (ProMED-mail post
http://promedmail.org/post/20070912.3018). In areas where an HLB pathogen
has not yet been detected, biological control of vectors has been used
successfully to reduce insect numbers and, therefore, the risk of HLB
outbreaks (for example, see ProMED-mail post
http://promedmail.org/post/20090601.2034).
Both _Ca._ L. asiaticus and _Ca._ L. americanus are spreading in South
America. _Ca._ L. asiaticus appears to increase at a disproportionally
higher rate which is thought to be due to this species being more heat
tolerant, but mixed infections have also been detected. It is not clear
which of the pathogens is referred to above, but if _Ca._ L.
asiaticus has been detected, this may be its first report in the country.
Maps
Colombia:
<http://worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/samerica/lgcolor/cocolor.htm>
and
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/35279>
Colombia departments:
<http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/colombia_map.htm>
South America, overview:
<http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/samerica/printpage/samainp.htm>
Pictures
HLB symptoms:
<http://www.caes.gov.tw/english/images/plant_02_5.jpg>
HLB symptoms and vector photo galleries:
<https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/LIBEAF/photos> and
<http://www.invasive.org/browse/subinfo.cfm?sub=4695>
_Ca._ L. asiaticus in host phloem, microscopy:
<http://www.apsnet.org/publications/apsnetfeatures/Article%20Images/Huanglon
gbing_Fig21.jpg>
_D. citri_:
<http://pestcontrolcenter.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Adult-Asian-Ci
trus-Psyllid.jpg>
Links
HLB information:
<http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&issn=0015-4040&volume=
087&issue=03&page=330>,
<http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=slideshowViewSlide&slideshowId=197>
and
<http://cisr.ucr.edu/citrus_greening.html>
Information on HLB pathogens and resources via:
<http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=1494&fr=1&sts=&lang=EN>
and
<http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=1496&fr=1&sts=&lang=EN>
Mixed _Ca._ L. infections and vector biocontrol:
<http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/2009/Rse-0905.pdf> and
<http://www.fruits-journal.org/articles/fruits/pdf/2001/05/quilici.pdf>
Recent HLB review and current state:
<http://ciheam.org/images/CIHEAM/PDFs/Publications/LV/WL33/018%20-%20Bov.pdf
>
Taxonomy of Liberibacter species via:
<http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/34019>
Taxonomy of psyllid vectors via:
<http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_val
ue=109187>
- Mod.DHA]
[See Also:
2015
----
Huanglongbing, citrus - Portugal: (AL) susp.
http://promedmail.org/post/20151116.3796582
Huanglongbing, citrus - India: survey
http://promedmail.org/post/20150409.3285806
Huanglongbing vector, citrus - Europe: 1st rep, Spain (GA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150213.3163555
2013
----
Huanglongbing, citrus - Paraguay
http://promedmail.org/post/20130724.1842707
2012
----
Huanglongbing, citrus - Brazil: (SP) update
http://promedmail.org/post/20121114.1408468
Huanglongbing, citrus - Argentina: 1st rep, (MN)
http://promedmail.org/post/20120917.1296650
Huanglongbing, citrus - USA: (CA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20120404.1089672
Huanglongbing, citrus - USA: (TX) spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20120122.1017941
2011
----
Huanglongbing, citrus - Costa Rica: 1st rep
http://promedmail.org/post/20110223.0593
2010
----
Huanglongbing, citrus - Nicaragua, Honduras: 1st reps
http://promedmail.org/post/20100419.1272
Black spot & huanglongbing, citrus - Europe: alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20100107.0080
and older items in the archives]
January 18, 2021. Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, webmaster@censa.edu.cu .