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Subject: [redesastres-l] Fwd: PRO/AH/EDR> Deformed wing virus, varroa mite, apis: manmade global spread, RFI
Date: Mon, 08 Feb 2016 12:26:12 -0500
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 Asunto: PRO/AH/EDR>  Deformed wing virus, varroa mite, apis: manmade  
global spread, RFI
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DEFORMED WING VIRUS, VARROA MITE, APIS: MANMADE GLOBAL SPREAD, REQUEST
FOR INFORMATION
**************************************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>
Date: Fri 5 Feb 2016
Source: PerfScience [edited]
<http://perfscience.com/content/2143201-global-virus-pandemic-honeybees-manmade-not-natural>
<http://science.sciencemag.org/content/351/6273/594>
A disease, which is wiping off bee populations across globe,
originated in Europe and has been spread through human acts. The virus
is being spread through European honeybees, said the researchers.
The European honeybees are considered to be the carrying agent of the
deformed wing virus. The researchers said that the phenomenon is not a
natural one and is mainly man-made. Human commerce and transfer of
bees for the purpose of crop pollination are the main reasons behind
the spread.
The _Varroa_ mite is one of the disease vectors in this situation. The
researchers have affirmed that millions of honey bees have been killed
owing to the little critter. Explaining the phenomenon, the
researchers shared that the _Varroa_ eat the bee larvae and the
deformed wing virus causes bees to bite the dust.
The researchers said that both the _Varroa_ mite and deformed wing
virus are linked with Europe [as its] source. If the disease would
have been natural then it would have been spread around the nearby
places.
But areas and regions that are as far as Europe and New Zealand are
showing the problem, which shows it is a man-made issue. "This is the
1st study to conclude that Europe is the backbone of the global spread
of the bee killing combination of deformed wing virus and _Varroa_.
This demonstrates that the spread of this combination is largely
manmade," affirmed study's lead researcher Dr Lena Wilfert, of the
University of Exeter's Centre for Ecology and Conservation.
The study strengthens the theory that human transportation of bees is
liable for the spread of devastating disease. The disease known as
deformed wing virus has spread from Europe to North America, Australia
and then New Zealand. The disease has not spread in Asia and
Australia.
The key finding of the study as per senior author Professor Mike Boots
of Exeter and UC Berkeley is that global virus pandemic in honeybees
is manmade not natural. Therefore, it is in our hands to take steps to
curb the same.
[Byline: Karan Gosal]
--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
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 ;
[This global hypothesis makes epidemiologic sense; when you move any
animal you also move its parasites and pathogens. - Mod.MHJ
Prior results from empirical and theoretical research and found that
bee colony collapses are caused by interacting stress factors that
affect the balance between pathogens and host immunity. Otherwise
silent infections with DWV become uncontrollable and kill the bees
when accompanied by infection with the mite _Varroa destructor_, the
stress response and a suppression of the immune system. These new data
shows that the synergistic interaction between both parasites (the
virus and the mite) originates from human intervention. Bees can deal
with either of them alone, but not in combination, which is a
situation relatively new for them (in evolutionary terms). There might
be a role for other stressors (such as insecticides) in this
host-parasite and parasite-parasite interactions. - Mod.PMB
Deformed wing virus (DWV) has been known since the 1980s and was first
recognized in Japan. It is an RNA virus and has worldwide
distribution. While it most commonly affects the honey bee (_Apis
mellifera_) it also affects the bumble bee (_Bombus terrestris_).
Abstract from Highfield AC et al: Deformed wing virus implicated in
overwintering honeybee colony losses. Appl. Environ. Biol. 2009;
75(22): 7212-20; doi: 10.1128/AEM.02227-09;
<http://aem.asm.org/content/75/22/7212.full>
The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years
has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite _Varroa
destructor_ and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses.
Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony
collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear
explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses,
bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible
candidates. Common characteristics that most failing colonies share is
a lack of overt disease symptoms and the disappearance of workers from
what appears to be normally functioning colonies. In this study, we
used quantitative PCR to monitor the presence of 3 honeybee viruses,
deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and black
queen cell virus (BQCV), during a 1-year period in 15 asymptomatic,
varroa mite-positive honeybee colonies in Southern England, and 3
asymptomatic colonies confirmed to be varroa mite free. All colonies
with varroa mites underwent control treatments to ensure that mite
populations remained low throughout the study. Despite this, multiple
virus infections were detected, yet a significant correlation was
observed only between DWV viral load and overwintering colony losses.
The long-held view has been that DWV is relatively harmless to the
overall health status of honeybee colonies unless it is in association
with severe varroa mite infestations. Our findings suggest that DWV
can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about
colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering
colony losses.
Abstract from Wilfert L et al: Deformed wing virus is a recent global
epidemic in honeybees driven by _Varroa_ mites. Science; 351(6273):
594-7; doi: 10.1126/science.aac9976;
<http://science.sciencemag.org/content/351/6273/594>
Deformed wing virus (DWV) and its vector, the mite _Varroa
destructor_, are a major threat to the world's honeybees. Although the
impact of _Varroa_ on colony-level DWV epidemiology is evident, we
have little understanding of wider DWV epidemiology and the role that
_Varroa_ has played in its global spread. A phylogeographic analysis
shows that DWV is globally distributed in honeybees, having recently
spread from a common source, the European honeybee _Apis mellifera_.
DWV exhibits epidemic growth and transmission that is predominantly
mediated by European and North American honeybee populations and
driven by trade and movement of honeybee colonies. DWV is now an
important reemerging pathogen of honeybees, which are undergoing a
worldwide manmade epidemic fueled by the direct transmission route
that the _Varroa_ mite provides.
So the mite appears to be intimately involved in spreading DWV. It
should also be remembered there are some mechanisms, including some
chemicals and fungicides that can control the mite, and therefore may
control the virus.
The man-made movement of bees may have provided a distribution for
both the mite and the DMV. - Mod.TG]
[See Also:
2015
----
Deformed wing virus, apis - New Zealand: Invasive ants potential
reservoirs http://promedmail.org/post/20150910.3636947
2014
----
Deformed wing virus, wild bumblebees - UK
http://promedmail.org/post/20140221.2292608
2012
----
Colony collapse disorder, apis (04): deformed wing virus
http://promedmail.org/post/20120611.1164105
2006
----
Varroa mite, bee - New Zealand
http://promedmail.org/post/20061216.3537
2005
----
OIE: new animal disease notification system
http://promedmail.org/post/20050715.2016
Varroa mite, bees - USA (MA) http://promedmail.org/post/20050531.1510
2004
----
Varroa mite, bees - New Zealand (S. Island): alert
http://promedmail.org/post/20040607.1531
2003
----
Varroa mite, bees - Canada http://promedmail.org/post/20030508.1148
1998
----
Varroa mite, bees - UK http://promedmail.org/post/19980803.1481]
January 18, 2021. Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, webmaster@censa.edu.cu .