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Subject: [redesastres-l] Pakistan: cancer de los citicos en mandarina
Date: Tue, 12 Jan 2016 06:53:32 -0500
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CITRUS CANKER, MANDARIN - PAKISTAN: (PUNJAB)
********************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>
Date: Mon 11 Jan 2016
Source: The Express Tribune [edited]
<http://tribune.com.pk/story/1025345/an-unprofitable-harvest-citrus-canker-damaged-this-years-crop/>
The 2015 kinnow [mandarin] yield was markedly low compared to previous
years because of various plant diseases that plagued citrus orchards
in the Punjab, Kinnow Growers' Association's Hamid Saleem Warraich
said.
"Citrus canker, one of the most devastating plant diseases, spread
like wild fire across the kinnow production belt." He said farmers had
to bear the brunt of the damage. "Almost 64 per cent of citrus fruit
grown in the Punjab is kinnow." Several commercial citrus varieties
were highly susceptible to the disease, and kinnow was the most
vulnerable. He requested the government to conduct thorough research
and look for solutions to prevent citrus canker.
--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
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[Citrus canker (CC) is caused by the bacterium _Xanthomonas
axonopodis_ pathovar _citri_ (synonyms _X. campestris_ pv. _citri_,
_X. citri_). The disease originated in Asia but is now present in most
citrus growing areas worldwide, except Australia, where an outbreak
was successfully eradicated (ProMED-mail post
http://promedmail.org/post/20090206.0528). CC affects most commercial
citrus varieties as well as other members of the family _Rutaceae_. A
number of different strains (pathovars) specialise in infecting
different hosts to cause bacterial blights in, for example,
pomegranate and onion. CC can destroy an entire crop and poses a
serious economic threat to citrus industries. Symptoms may include
blister-like formations (cankers) on fruit, leaves and branches
leading to defoliation and premature fruit drop, as well as twig
dieback and general tree decline. Although the taste of the fruit is
not affected, it cannot be sold or processed.
The bacterium can be transmitted by mechanical means, water or insects
within groves, while long-distance spread occurs mostly by infected
plant material. Disease management relies mainly on phytosanitation
and use of clean planting and grafting material but may also include
bactericidal sprays and use of less susceptible crop varieties.
Planting of windbreaks to reduce the number of insects present in
groves that can cause wounds on leaf surfaces serving as ports of
pathogen entry may also be used to reduce CC incidence.
In Pakistan, an outbreak of citrus canker in this area was reported
initially in early 2015 in orange groves (ProMED-mail post
http://promedmail.org/post/20150415.3298470). It is not surprising
that kinnow mandarins (_Citrus nobilis_ x _C. deliciosa_ hybrid) and
other citrus crops would also be affected.
A group of strains of the related _X. a._ pv. _aurantifolii_
originating in South America causes a similar disease in some
locations, but it is much less widespread and of lower economic
significance.
Maps
Pakistan (with provinces):
<http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/pakistan_pol_2002.jpg>
Punjab districts:
<http://www.pakworkers.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Map-of-Punjab-Province-district-wise-in-Pakistan.jpg>
Pictures
CC symptoms:
<http://idtools.org/id/citrus/diseases/images/fs_images/04CitrusCanker.jpg>
(citrus leaves and fruit),
<http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/advanced/topics/EcologyAndEpidemiologyInR/DiseaseProgress/PublishingImages/citrusCanker.jpg>
(grapefruit fruit) and
<http://www.insectimages.org/images/768x512/1262024.jpg> (leaf
lesions, close up)
Links
CC disease description and information:
<http://www.apsnet.org/EDCENTER/ADVANCED/TOPICS/ECOLOGYANDEPIDEMIOLOGYINR/DISEASEPROGRESS/Pages/CitrusCanker.aspx>,
<http://idtools.org/id/citrus/diseases/factsheet.php?name=Citrus%20canker>
(with photos) and
<http://www.floridagardener.com/misc/canker.htm>
CC factsheet, including information on strains:
<http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/56921>
CC disease cycle:
<http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/search/image/element/sample/gottwald11.gif>
_X. a._ pv. _citri_ taxonomy:
<http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/190486>
List of citrus hybrids:
<http://www.buzzle.com/articles/hybrid-citrus-fruits.html>
 - Mod.DHA
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/140>.]
[See Also:
2015
----
Citrus canker - USA: (TX) re-emerging
http://promedmail.org/post/20151106.3771100
Citrus canker - Pakistan: (PB)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150415.3298470
2013
----
Citrus canker - USA: (LA) http://promedmail.org/post/20130712.1821488
2010
----
Citrus canker, grapefruit - USA: (FL)
http://promedmail.org/post/20100126.0284
2009
----
Citrus canker - Australia: (QLD) eradicated
http://promedmail.org/post/20090206.0528
2008
----
Citrus canker - Mali, Somalia: 1st reports
http://promedmail.org/post/20080626.1970
2007
-------- Forwarded Message --------
Subject: [redesastres-l] Pakistan: cancer de los citicos en mandarina
Date: Tue, 12 Jan 2016 06:53:32 -0500
From: Esta dirección de correo electrónico está protegida contra spambots. Usted necesita tener Javascript activado para poder verla.
To: Esta dirección de correo electrónico está protegida contra spambots. Usted necesita tener Javascript activado para poder verla.

.
CITRUS CANKER, MANDARIN - PAKISTAN: (PUNJAB)
********************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>
Date: Mon 11 Jan 2016
Source: The Express Tribune [edited]
<http://tribune.com.pk/story/1025345/an-unprofitable-harvest-citrus-canker-damaged-this-years-crop/>
The 2015 kinnow [mandarin] yield was markedly low compared to previous
years because of various plant diseases that plagued citrus orchards
in the Punjab, Kinnow Growers' Association's Hamid Saleem Warraich
said.
"Citrus canker, one of the most devastating plant diseases, spread
like wild fire across the kinnow production belt." He said farmers had
to bear the brunt of the damage. "Almost 64 per cent of citrus fruit
grown in the Punjab is kinnow." Several commercial citrus varieties
were highly susceptible to the disease, and kinnow was the most
vulnerable. He requested the government to conduct thorough research
and look for solutions to prevent citrus canker.
--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<
 Esta dirección de correo electrónico está protegida contra spambots. Usted necesita tener Javascript activado para poder verla.
 >';
 document.write('');
 document.write(addy_text8780);
 document.write('<\/a>');
 //-->\n Esta dirección de correo electrónico está protegida contra spambots. Usted necesita tener Javascript activado para poder verla.
 ;
[Citrus canker (CC) is caused by the bacterium _Xanthomonas
axonopodis_ pathovar _citri_ (synonyms _X. campestris_ pv. _citri_,
_X. citri_). The disease originated in Asia but is now present in most
citrus growing areas worldwide, except Australia, where an outbreak
was successfully eradicated (ProMED-mail post
http://promedmail.org/post/20090206.0528). CC affects most commercial
citrus varieties as well as other members of the family _Rutaceae_. A
number of different strains (pathovars) specialise in infecting
different hosts to cause bacterial blights in, for example,
pomegranate and onion. CC can destroy an entire crop and poses a
serious economic threat to citrus industries. Symptoms may include
blister-like formations (cankers) on fruit, leaves and branches
leading to defoliation and premature fruit drop, as well as twig
dieback and general tree decline. Although the taste of the fruit is
not affected, it cannot be sold or processed.
The bacterium can be transmitted by mechanical means, water or insects
within groves, while long-distance spread occurs mostly by infected
plant material. Disease management relies mainly on phytosanitation
and use of clean planting and grafting material but may also include
bactericidal sprays and use of less susceptible crop varieties.
Planting of windbreaks to reduce the number of insects present in
groves that can cause wounds on leaf surfaces serving as ports of
pathogen entry may also be used to reduce CC incidence.
In Pakistan, an outbreak of citrus canker in this area was reported
initially in early 2015 in orange groves (ProMED-mail post
http://promedmail.org/post/20150415.3298470). It is not surprising
that kinnow mandarins (_Citrus nobilis_ x _C. deliciosa_ hybrid) and
other citrus crops would also be affected.
A group of strains of the related _X. a._ pv. _aurantifolii_
originating in South America causes a similar disease in some
locations, but it is much less widespread and of lower economic
significance.
Maps
Pakistan (with provinces):
<http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/pakistan_pol_2002.jpg>
Punjab districts:
<http://www.pakworkers.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Map-of-Punjab-Province-district-wise-in-Pakistan.jpg>
Pictures
CC symptoms:
<http://idtools.org/id/citrus/diseases/images/fs_images/04CitrusCanker.jpg>
(citrus leaves and fruit),
<http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/advanced/topics/EcologyAndEpidemiologyInR/DiseaseProgress/PublishingImages/citrusCanker.jpg>
(grapefruit fruit) and
<http://www.insectimages.org/images/768x512/1262024.jpg> (leaf
lesions, close up)
Links
CC disease description and information:
<http://www.apsnet.org/EDCENTER/ADVANCED/TOPICS/ECOLOGYANDEPIDEMIOLOGYINR/DISEASEPROGRESS/Pages/CitrusCanker.aspx>,
<http://idtools.org/id/citrus/diseases/factsheet.php?name=Citrus%20canker>
(with photos) and
<http://www.floridagardener.com/misc/canker.htm>
CC factsheet, including information on strains:
<http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/56921>
CC disease cycle:
<http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/search/image/element/sample/gottwald11.gif>
_X. a._ pv. _citri_ taxonomy:
<http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/190486>
List of citrus hybrids:
<http://www.buzzle.com/articles/hybrid-citrus-fruits.html>
 - Mod.DHA
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/140>.]
[See Also:
2015
----
Citrus canker - USA: (TX) re-emerging
http://promedmail.org/post/20151106.3771100
Citrus canker - Pakistan: (PB)
http://promedmail.org/post/20150415.3298470
2013
----
Citrus canker - USA: (LA) http://promedmail.org/post/20130712.1821488
2010
----
Citrus canker, grapefruit - USA: (FL)
http://promedmail.org/post/20100126.0284
2009
----
Citrus canker - Australia: (QLD) eradicated
http://promedmail.org/post/20090206.0528
2008
----
Citrus canker - Mali, Somalia: 1st reports
http://promedmail.org/post/20080626.1970
2007
August 15, 2020. Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, webmaster@censa.edu.cu .